Here is an MP3 recording of my class on the subject of Cook's journal as writing. It deals firstly with how Cook's writing changed, over the eleven years or so that he wrote his expedition journals, and secondly with what John Hawkesworth did with the journal of the first voyage, in the 1770s, to transform it into a successful book. Much of it is based on the research of Jean-Stéphane Massiani.
Thursday, May 13, 2021
Wednesday, May 12, 2021
Tuesday, May 11, 2021
Monday, May 10, 2021
Sunday, May 09, 2021
Thursday, May 06, 2021
Coming to Britain in 1938
Monday, May 03, 2021
Thursday, April 29, 2021
Wednesday, April 28, 2021
Here is video chapter twelve, which moves us onto the third expedition. There will be three chapters on this third expedition, followed by chapters which I am at present writing, about science and Cook's journeys.
Tuesday, April 27, 2021
After it was alleged that he said « No more lockdowns: let the bodies pile high in their thousands. »
Thursday, April 22, 2021
Wednesday, April 21, 2021
British history with a smile.
If you are tempted by learning about key figures in British history in half hour talks by a well-known comedian, mixing wild jokes and serious explanation, have a look at these talks by Mark Steel !
The Industrial revolution
Tuesday, April 20, 2021
Sunday, April 18, 2021
You may have heard. French television put out several hours of coverage of his funeral yesterday, with many generalizations about what British people must be feeling.
Naturally, as in all such cases, there is a wide variety of feelings among British people. Among the more iconoclastic is this one, from left-wing comedian Mark Steel
Saturday, April 17, 2021
250 years after Cook: New Zealand and the Maori language
Thursday, April 15, 2021
Tuesday, April 13, 2021
Saturday, April 10, 2021
Friday, April 09, 2021
You will find here chapter 8, which takes us up to the end of Cook's first expedition. The two other expeditions, however, will only get three chapters each, and these videos will be followed by more general considerations about Cook, the world that produced him and the world he produced.
Thursday, April 08, 2021
Deux collègues de l'Université de Lille, Cédric Courtois (LEA / CECILLE EA 4074) et Fiona McCann (LLCE / CECILLE EA 4074) feront une présentation notamment à destination des étudiants sur la thématique suivante :
"Au-delà des polémiques : qu'est-ce que le post-colonialisme ? Qu'est-ce qu'une approche décoloniale?" Deux étudiants ayant suivi des cours sur ces thématiques interviendront rapidement. Après quoi nous aurons un échange avec les personnes présentes. Je me permettrai en préambule de rappeler dans quel contexte politique s'inscrivent les polémiques récentes en France, où "post-colonialisme" et "décolonial(isme)" ont souvent été régulièrement entendus. Oliver Esteves Voici le lien Zoom pour cet événement : https://univ-lille-fr.zoom.us/j/93042790478
Wednesday, April 07, 2021
In our class on the BBC I mentioned a poem which referred to the elite thinking that high culture was not appropriate for working class people. But I said it might be Auden. In fact the poem is by Sassoon, and here it is :
The Case for the Miners
Something goes wrong with my synthetic brain
When I defend the Strikers and explain
My reasons for not blackguarding the Miners.
" What do you know? " exclaim my fellow-diners
(Peeling their plovers' eggs or lifting glasses
Of mellowed Chateau Rentier from the table),
" What do you know about the working classes?"
I strive to hold my own; but I'm unable
To state the case succinctly. Indistinctly
I mumble about World-Emancipation,
Standards of Living, Nationalization
Of Industry; until they get me tangled
In superficial details; goad me on
To unconvincing vagueness. When we've wrangled
From soup to savoury, my temper's gone.
"Why should a miner earn six pounds a week?
Leisure! They'd only spend it in a bar!
Standard of life! You'll never teach them Greek,
Or make them more contented than they are!"
That's how my port-flushed friends discuss the Strike.
And that's the reason why I shout and splutter.
And that's the reason why I'd almost like
To see them hawking matches in the gutter.
by Siegfried Sassoon
Monday, April 05, 2021
Friday, April 02, 2021
Thursday, April 01, 2021
Although of course it will be an oral exam, if any one of you wants to do, in writing, a practice question ("leçon"), I will happily comment on it. Here is the subject:
Friends and enemies in James Cook's journals and voyages
Wednesday, March 31, 2021
Will a DNA based diet help you fit your jeans? 3 min 23 seconds
Tips for long distance parenting : 3 min 25 secs
If you can make it, I recommend you attend (virtually).
Tuesday, March 30, 2021
British comedian Mark Steel on recent news about COVID in the UK
Saturday, March 27, 2021
Friday, March 26, 2021
Monday, March 22, 2021
You will find here on YouTube the fourth chapter on "Les voyages de James Cook" It takes us up to where he leaves Tahiti with Tupaia, en route for New Zealand (unknowingly).
Thursday, March 18, 2021
Wednesday, March 17, 2021
Here are the two pieces we listened to as practice for the agrégation interne compréhension orale. Of course we only listened to the first few minutes. I recommend that you listen to the whole programme. If yo understand less than 90%, listen three times.
Monday, March 15, 2021
You will find here another video chapter on Cook's first expedition. these videos will first take a chronological approach, going through the three expeditions and commenting on significant, typical, or confusing episodes and their contexts.
Thursday, March 11, 2021
Congratulations on having survived the written exams!
We have a few classes on text commentay before the orals. I think the first one is on the 17th.
Here is a collection of documents. We certainly will not have time to look at them all, but read through them and look up the references etc which will help you.
Aider et accompagner les étudiants à l'URN L’Université de Rouen Normandie se mobilise pour aider les étudiants en situation de fragilité, dans le contexte actuel de crise sanitaire. En complément de l’action de l’État et de l’établissement, les partenaires et les associations sont également sur le terrain pour accompagner au mieux les étudiantes et étudiants de l’Université.
Wednesday, March 10, 2021
Monday, March 08, 2021
The classes are going to be hybrid, as follows.
This week : you are working at home.
1. Look at these worksheets
Answer as many of the questions as you can, taking notes.
Next week we will have a live class by zoom and we will look at the answers and discuss the problems.
2. Write in exactly 100 words an abstract for your research dissertation. Send it to me before next Monday ( john. mullen at univ-rouen.fr ) Write it in English if you are in the English department: otherwise in French.
3. If you have any other questions, or anything to ask about methodology, ask by email.
NB cours en live mercredi prochain à 12h
Tuesday, March 02, 2021
Commentary : Speech on the BBC by Tony Benn
As the written exams are coming up in a week or so, I thought I would put this on the blog straight away. I give here some initial comments. In a couple of days, I will add more to this post (no doubt in a different colour to help you identify it).
There are a large number of ways of doing a good commentary of this document. The jury certainly does not have in mind a specific approach we you are supposed to find or guess. A very good commentary will show
- A high level of quite sophisticated formal English (few mistakes, a wide vocabulary, some complex sentences, well-constructed paragraphs)
- A clear understanding of what Tony Benn says and what he is trying to do in this short extract from a much longer speech
- A number of signs of a good knowledge of the historical context of the time of the speech, of the debates and controversies which Benn’s contribution brings to mind, and of where this intervention fits in the long history of that important question : what should the BBC should be doing for its public ?
Now, this last point could allow you to write many dozens of pages, so naturally your context is not supposed to be comprehensive – if you include some of the more important elements among those which I am including in my comments, this is quite sufficient.
Let me first go through the questions we always ask.
WHO? (is expressing themselves)
Tony Benn is probably the best known of the MPs who represented the Left wing of the Labour Party in the 1970s and 1980s, and was a key influence on the political ideas of Jeremy Corbyn who would much later lead the Labour Party for a few years. Benn was a member of parliament for over 50 years, a minister in the Labour governments of Harold Wilson in the 1960s and 1970s. When he decided to retire from his position as member of parliament, in 2001, he drily remarked that he wanted to stop being an MP « in order to spend more time on politics ». In this way he intended to communicate his opinion that some of the great social changes come about through protest, strike action and other mass activity, not as a result of purely electoral strategies. Indeed he became a key leader of the Stop the War Coalition, the biggest mass political organization seen in the UK for a very long time.
Benn is also known for having written, and later published, detailed diaries of his political work, including very frank details of the secret power play which is sometimes in evidence behind the scenes. This extract is indeed taken from one of the volumes of his diaries, published twenty years after the events. The title of the volume « Office without Power » expresses his conviction that left wing governments or ministers are almost never able to carry out radical social change, because, although they are in office, the real power lies with big companies and international capital, not with governments : this is a viewpoint characteristic of the radical Left.
In 1968, Benn was minister of technology under the Prime Ministership of Harold Wilson. He had, two years previously, been Postmaster General, and therefore had very direct involvement with policy questions in the BBC.
TO WHOM? (are they trying to communicate)
The speech is made « to constituents ». It would be a mistake not to show that you understand this word : Benn is talking to the people whose MP he is, the people who live in the area which elected him as MP (Bristol South East). Remember that once an MP is elected, they are supposed to represent everyone who lives in their constituency, of whatever political colour.
This document has a second audience, too, since it was reprinted twenty years later in Benn’s published diaries. It is then to be read by people who read Benn’s diaries. This would mostly be people broadly in sympathy with Benn’s political ideas, hoping to learn from his experience in dealing with a wide variety of political and social problems.
WHEN? (What is important about the fact that it was at this time and not another?)
The late 1960s was a period of rapid change. Television was becoming omnipresent in British homes, the competition between the two BBC channels and the single commercial channel was quite heated. Benn will refer to this in his speech when he speaks of the question of ratings. The BBC still had a monopoly in radio at this time, and the 1967 reorganization had attempted to thoroughly modernize the tone and content of BBC radio.
Public debate about broadcasting at this times centred around the effects of television on people, especially children, and on the role of the media in supporting the establishment. The Pilkington report in the early 1960s had been very favourable to the BBC, and very critical of commercial television, and this is why the third channel had been awarded to the BBC (BBC2). Mary Whitehouse’s organization, the National Viewers and Listeners Association, was running a « clean up television » campaign, hoping to stop vulgar or irreligious content being broadcast. The Director-General, Hugh Greene felt the BBC needed to absorb the social transformations going on in the 1960s. He famously commented « « I believe we have a duty to take account of the changes in society, to be ahead of public opinion rather than always to wait upon it. »
WHAT? (is the essential content of the document? Also, what do they NOT say which we might expect them to say?)
Tony Benn begins by replying to a criticism often made of the radical Left, that it is hoping for a Stalinist style centralized control of broadcasting, and adds that he is not in this speech going to speak of the medi abeing too favourable to the Conservative party.
He makes a series of criticisms of the content of broadcasting : That the personality and opinions of broadcasters are having more and more influence, that worries about audience ratings and competition are having too much influence and limiting the content broadcast. Finally he claims that the style of media presentation of important subjects tends to trivialize them rather than explore them fully.
These criticisms are of the same tenor as those made by scholars studying the media, who became more numerous in the late sixties and seventies. The concept of agenda-setting (developed by McCombs and Shaw in the sixties, from earlier precursors), concentrates precisely on that capacity of mass media not so much to tell people what to think as to tell people what questions to think about. This is what Benn seems to be saying in paragraph 8. Shortly afterwards, when Benn is complaining of “triviality”, “superficiality” and “sensationalism”, one is reminded of the analysis of Pierre Bourdieu, in his book “Sur la télévision”  in which Bourdieu insists that the form of television tends to make serious discussion of social questions impossible. In this, Bourdieu is no doubt more pessimistics than Benn.
Benn frames his criticism within a very positive view of broadcasting in general, which he feels has massively improved the lives and cultural sophistication of ordinary people
WHY? (are they saying all this: what is their objective?)
Benn is warning about some of the negative aspects of bnroadcasting, in particular of broadcasting news and current affaires, while celebrating the great achievements of broadcasting, he is concerned that the worldview the BBC is putting across does not serve the people.
Later, by reprinting this speech in his diaries, he is hoping that left wing people who are the ones who read his diaries will learn something useful by looking back at historical debates Benn was involved in as MP ans as minister.
HOW? (do they try to reach their objective? Irony? Mockery? Rhetorical devices?)
It seems to me there is little to day about this, the style of the speech being very straightforward.
WHAT HAPPENED AFTER ? (If the document promises, or predicts or warns, did these elements come true ?)
Benn mentions questions of political balance. This has been discussed, firstly, in relation to electoral politics and the representation of political parties and their programmes and personalities, on TV and radio. The UK electoral system gives a solid position to two parties – Labour and Conservative, and each have from time to time complained of lack of balance. In the 1926 general strike, the government dissuaded the BBC from broadcasting statements by Ramsay Macdonald, the leader of the Labour Party. Another complaint from Labour, later accepted by the BBC, took place in relation with a documentary about Labour leadership, in 1970. This was given the partisan title “Yesterday’s Men”.
Text commentary – speech by Tony Benn
[This is part two of my comments. There will be more.]
Based on the six scripts I received commenting on this document, here is a presentation of some of the things students got wrong. Please do not take it personally if I am quoting your mistakes ! It is to help everybody.
I already mentioned in my initial comments the usefulness of the paratexte. If you do not know who Tony Benn was, this section gives you a lot of information.
Tony Benn, 18 October 1968 in: Benn, Tony, Office Without Power: Diaries 1968-72, Arrow Books, London, 1989 (1988), pp. 107-109.
Tony Benn published in 1988 his diaries. Very minor MPs cannot find a publisher for their diaries, so he must have played an important role. This volume of his diaries covers only 4 years, and the start date and end date do not correspond to changes of government – the volume goes from half way through a Labour government to half way through a Conservative government. It is reasonable to conclude that he published several volumes of his diaries. This in fact reflects his position as the most influential Left wing MP for the 1970s and 1980s at least. Further, the dates show that the first edition of the volume appeared in 1988, and a second edition was brought out only one year afterwards : we can conclude that the book sold well. The title of the volume « Office without power » identifies Benn as a left-winger who believes that rich capitalists rather than governments have power in British society.
Of course, it is even more useful to know who the man is. Here is an obituary of Tony Benn from the national daily The Guardian
And here is one from the radical left
As often, one of the main dangers was paraphrasing – rewriting in three sentences what Benn said in one. Instead, make sure each paragraph shows you know something which is not already in the document, but with which you have shown the link. Benn mentions a small number of huge questions, and each one has been discussed before and after Benn, or can be illustrated from examples in the history of the BBC.
Frequently give brief but precise examples
You need to give examples of programmes. So when referring to Benn’s statement that public broadcasting should help people to adjust to « enormous changes », give a couple of examples . You might perhaps mention programmes to help integration of immigrants https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apna_Hi_Ghar_Samajhiye , science programmes such as Tomorrow’s World
( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomorrow%27s_World ), the later BBC Micro project ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC_Micro ). Or you could speak of the Open University, which was to be founded in 1969.
Benn recognizes the validity of « inform, educate, entertain », but suggests an additional principle: helping people adapt to a change. He will not be the only person suggesting a fourth principle. The Annan report, in 1977, will suggest “enrichment—to enlarge people’s interests, to convey to them new choices and possibilities in life.” These suggestions serve to remind us that « inform educate entertain » constituted not a universal truth but a specific choice by Reith at a specific time. The three main principles, in addition, did not retain the same meaning as the decades went by : Reith’s view of « entertainment » tended to be of a very paternalistic tone, which was much less evident in later decades.
Benn criticizes broadcasting for always showing the same kind of people. He implies that an elitist group of voices dominate the airwaves. In the history of the BBC, different creative teams have occasionally had success opening up the airwaves to a wider set of voices, anc you could mention this. The article here ( https://journals.openedition.org/rfcb/7681 ) gives several examples (but note that these are occasinal attempts, which run counter to the general trend).
Benn shows concern that the end of the old-fashioned BBC style of the neutral presente, showing no emotion of any sort, while necessary, may be giving way to presenters who influence viewers and listeners unduly. He does not give examples of the commentators in current affairs he is uneasy about. Robin Day is the best-known example (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Day#Journalistic_career ) . He more or less invented the aggressive TV interview, which in later years became standard fare.
Evolution is 1) an uncountable noun and 2) almost always reserved for extremely slow change over centuries or milennia.
Sensationalism and to sensationalize are useful words inthis discussion. The use of sensationalizing as an adjective is more than a little clumsy. (*a sensationalizing approach to the news).
The expression Western society takes a capital letter, as it is not simply a geographical detail tellong you where the society is in the world, but a political concept. (So Japan is sometimes considered a Western society).
The difference between the last and the latest is fairly well explained on this website, which I quote here
The difference is in the future of the sentence.
· implies nothing else will follow. It's the last, and after this it is finished.
· implies that it is the , which means there could be more to follow.
The examples in J.R.'s post fit the case:
they leave their last will and testament.
They won't be able to leave another will after that. These are their wishes.
the latest fashions and the latest trends.
These are the fashions and trends of this moment. However, this will change in the future. But at this moment, these are the .
However, there are exceptions, as J.R. also points out quite nicely:
As a matter of fact, I think I might prefer the latest book you've read to the last book you've read, although I wouldn't correct anyone for using the latter. A pedantic wiseacre might answer, "What was the last book you read?" by saying, "Last? I hope I'll be reading another soon!", even though the word last is used that way.
When I went through a list of questions, above, I omitted one which can be important. « How typical is this document ? » Is Benn coming up with a list of completely original criticisms, or can you comment on each one by saying « this criticism is similar to those of ... ».
Benn’s criticisms and comments are five in number. It is recommended to comment on them one by one. A very common mistake is to remain vague about what the document is actually saying.
1) Broadcasting can /should go further than the inform/educate/entertain triad.
2) Personal style and opinion of a small groups of current affairs commentators has undue influence.
3) There should be more people, and in particular a greater variety of people (less of an elite) seen and heard in the media.
4) The choice of subjects is often good but much is omitted.
5) The style of presentation has become too sensational and too much influenced by ratings.
You may well not find examples (of similar arguments heard elsewhere, of BBC programmes which illustrate the problem or which tend to show that there were exceptions, etc) for every one of the five elements, but you must look for them and manage two or three.
Note that Benn is mostly speaking of current affairs programmes and news programmes, which he had a lot of experience with as a minister or left wing leader being interviewed. You can see here an example much later, in 2009, which shows what kind of person Benn was. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itvWlKJrc2s )
Students understandably wonder which historical and current figures you are supposed to know a little about. Here is a list of the most well-known political figures in the UK today ? The top ten you must know ; the top twenty, even better.
Several students said extremely vague things about the sixties, and didn't mention who was Prime Minister...
Benn was a minister under Harold Wilson. Although the Labour government 1964-70 brought in very important reforms to improve the situation of women and of gays, and began to look timidly at racism, thiese things were not the main public focus for Wilson. He spoke of modernizing socialism "in the white heat of the technological revolution".
The Guardian writes
Focusing on science allowed Wilson to transcend the ideological divisions within Labour, and allowed him (temporarily) to win the support of both the revisionist right and socialist left of his party. This strategy was also specifically designed to appeal to the skilled workers that were thought to be drifting away from Labour, with its emphasis on the importance of formal qualifications and technical expertise.
Wilson later wrote that his aspiration had been to "replace the cloth cap [with] the white laboratory coat as the symbol of British labour", and his Scarborough speech went some way to achieving this, with one trade union leader reported to have observed that Wilson had "captured science for the Labour Party".
This was a period when dozens of new universities were opened, and unemployment was extremely low. Plastics cars and engineering factories were becoming the focus of the economy. This is very much what Benn is referring to when he speaks of changes.
Revision of Britain since 1945 here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTCSXG2idxo
 If you simple repeat the word « constituent », without briefly defining the word, the jury will conclude that you do not know the meaning of the word : not good.
 Benn’s speech does not easily give you opportunities to show knowledge about the early years of the BBC, but it is good to find occasional reasons to do so.
Monday, March 01, 2021
You will find here
The MP3 recording of the second live class, which looked at the eighteenth century, the society and the power which produced Cook.
The slides we looked at are here
Thursday, February 25, 2021
You will find here the final video chapter in the series on Social and Cultural Changes in the 1970s in the UK.
And you will find here an article « Aspects of Popular Culture in the 1970s », which originally appeared as a chapter in a book.
If you have questions about the assignment, send me an email.